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Space Station Research Experiments
Browse Experiments By
Biology and Biotechnology
In microgravity, controls on the directionality and geometry of cell and tissue growth can be dramatically different to those on Earth. Various experiments have used the culture of cells, tissues and small organisms on orbit as a tool to increase our understanding of biological processes in microgravity.
Earth and Space Science
The presence of the space station in low-Earth orbit provides a unique vantage point for collecting Earth and space science data. From an average altitude of about 400 km, details in such features as glaciers, agricultural fields, cities, and coral reefs taken from the ISS can be layered with other sources of data, such as orbiting satellites, to compile the most comprehensive information available.
The space station provides a unique platform for inspiring students to excel in mathematics and science. Station educational activities have had a positive impact on thousands of students by involving them in station research, and by using the station to teach them the science and engineering that are behind space exploration.
The space station is being used to study the risks to human health that are inherent in space exploration. Focal research questions address the mechanisms of the risks and develop test countermeasures to reduce these risks. Research on space station addresses the major risks to human health from residence in a long-duration microgravity environment. Results from this research are key enablers for future long-duration missions beyond low Earth orbit.
The space station provides the only place to study long-term physical effects in the absence of gravity. This unique microgravity environment allows different physical properties to dominate systems, and these have been harnessed for a wide variety of physical sciences.
Studies on the space station can test a variety of technologies, systems, and materials that will be needed for future long-duration exploration missions.
Foreign Company Research
There are several points to remember when researching foreign companies. The first is that American sources will not necessarily contain as complete information on foreign companies as material produced locally in individual countries. Second, information on non-American companies may be limited for several reasons: the information expectations regarding company information in other countries may not be the same as they are in the US; it may be harder to gather the information, or publications may not be printed with the same frequency as they are in the US.
If a foreign company trades on any of the US exchanges, it will have to file an annual report (20F) with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Also, it may have divisions in the US that are companies in their own right so they will be required to file the same filings as other US public companies. Sometimes these will be on the SEC page and sometimes they won’t since 20Fs were not required to be filed electronically.
For more information on researching foreign companies, you may consult the following source:
How to Find Information About Foreign and Global Companies. Washington, DC: Washington Researchers, c1996-.
LC Call Number: HD2771.H69
LC Catalog Record: 96648284
Scientific knowledge about the effects of music and music making is constantly expanding, and the NAMM Foundation has taken a global leadership role in supporting music research. Research expands understanding about the impact of music making and music education, the importance of music at every stage of life, and relationships between music and physical and emotional wellness. Outcomes of music research support NAMM’s public relations programs along with public policy and advocacy activity.
The NAMM Foundation provides funding for projects such as the work by neurobiologist Nina Kraus, which offers insight into how musical experience affects brain function across the lifespan.
Getting Kids Interested In Poetry
Poet and educator Kwame Alexander stops by to chat about poetry with NPR’s Rachel Martin. He shares some ideas for poems to read with kids and tips for getting kids to write some of their own.
To listen to the transcript go
This website is dedicated to helping children learn to read. For anyone who cares about reading and helping those with dyslexia and reading difficulties, ReadingResource.net is for you. In the course of working with thousands of children in the public schools, giving lectures, teaching at the university level, and consulting with parents, we have experienced first hand the importance of learning to read. Fortunately, we know now, more than ever, what to do to ensure every child becomes a good reader. Best of all, we know what to do when reading does not come easily.
Oxford History of Western Music
This portion of The Oxford History of Western Music College Edition companion website highlights major tools for researching music, writing about music, and citing music sources. The goal is to equip you to write research papers or other assignments required as part of your music history classes. Content is arranged according to the type of sources, for example, “How do I find scores?” Catalogs are discussed first because your college or university online catalog is a gateway to many of the resources you will use regardless of format. Because this is a short guide, including only major sources, suggestions are made throughout for additional resources available to help with your music history assignments. You may want to think of these resources as your basic “toolbox” for music research and writing. Your local librarians are major research “tools” as well, so please ask them for assistance and advice. Searching for music materials is often challenging, so do not hesitate to get to know the librarians who are there to help you.
BookPage is a monthly book review publication distributed to 400,000 avid readers through subscribing bookstores and public libraries. Founded in 1988 and located in Nashville, Tennessee, BookPage serves as a broad-based selection guide to the best new books published every month. All of the content from the print edition is posted on BookPage.com each month.
All material on BookPage.com is copyright © 1996-2017 by BookPage and ProMotion, Inc.
Our goal is to connect every book lover with their next great read. BookPage covers all types of books—from literary fiction, history and biography to popular genres like romance and mystery—and our book reviews, author interviews and special features are informative and accessible.
Our Editorial Policy
BookPage is a selection guide for new books. Our editors evaluate and select for review the best books in a variety of categories. BookPage is editorially independent; only books we highly recommended are featured. Any publisher-sponsored content is clearly labeled as such.
National Science Review
About the Journal
National Science Review is freely available online!
National Science Review is a peer-reviewed journal aimed at reviewing cutting-edge developments across science and technology in China and around the world. The journal covers all areas of the natural sciences, including physics and mathematics, chemistry, life sciences, earth sciences, materials sciences, and information sciences.
Written by the Editor-in-Chief, Associate Editors, Editorial board members, or prestigious invited scientists and policy makers on a broad range of topics from science to science policy and issues related to society at large.
Extensive reviews of the recent progress in specific areas of science, including historical reviews, recent advances made by scientists internationally as well as within China, and perspective for future development.
International Journal of Applied Science Research and Review
International Journal of Applied Science-Research and Review is an open access electronic journal aiming to provide an online compendium that covers all aspects in diverse areas of Applied Science including Applied Microbiology, Applied Psychology, Agricultural Engineering, Applied Aviation Sciences, Applied Ecology, Applied Nutrition, Applied Chemistry, Biology, Biotechnology, Bioengineering, Business and Economics, Chemistry, Computer Science, Chemical Engineering, Environmental Science, Engineering, Finance, Food Science, Geology, Linguistics, Mathematics and Statistics, Medicine and Architecture, Materials Science, Nanotechnology, Nanoscience, Natural and Technological Sciences, Physics, Social Sciences, and related disciplines.
The journal accepts research articles, review articles, short communications, case study, commentary, etc
International Journal of Applied Science-Research and Review provides open access to peer reviewed research as part of its commitment to readers and authors. We make all International Journal of Applied Science-Research and Review research articles freely available online and send them directly to for archiving and indexing.
Submit manuscript at ww.editorialmanager.com/imedpubjournals/
“The Artists’ Books Collection encompasses books crafted, published, produced or altered by an artist, including works resulting from an artist’s collaboration with artist-run organizations, colleges, universities, galleries, and museums. The collection also includes non-book works that represent a conceptual renegotiation of the traditional book form. Works in the collection date from 1960 to the present.” Pratt Libraries Web site
The White House
Which President served as a lieutenant colonel in the Spanish-American war? Who was the first Democrat elected after the Civil War? Who introduced Social Security? If you’re looking to learn more about the past Presidents who have led our country, you’re in the right place. Take a look at our full set of biographies. Then, quiz your friends.
Purdue Scientific Literacy Project
In “Living Things” children investigate the properties of living things. The inquiry unit is based on observations of animals and plants in the children’s environment. The unit is designed to help children explore important topics in biology such as:
differences between living and non living things
habitats and how living things are adapted to their habitats
structure and function, or how animal bodies enable them to function and survive
Children learn about these concepts by going on nature hikes to observe living and non-living things in their environments, recording observations in their science notebooks with digital photographs and drawings and writing (using invented spelling or by telling an adult who writes what the child wishes to have recorded verbatim for the child). This unit includes eight inquiry activities and six books:
Health Research Books
Health Research Books is the world’s largest publisher of rare and
unusual books. We have thousands of titles and hundreds of unique
Journals Sage Pub.
The American Educational Research Journal (AERJ) is the flagship journal of AERA, with articles that advance the empirical, theoretical, and methodological understanding of education and learning. It publishes original peer-reviewed analyses spanning the field of education research across all subfields and disciplines and all levels of analysis, all levels of education throughout the life span and all forms of learning. Submissions reflect the highest quality in a wide range of perspectives, topics, contexts, and methods.
Research Guide to Music & Music History
Many print magazines and journals in music. Additional music periodicals are available in online full-text in journal databases.
Environmental Research publishes original reports describing studies of the adverse effects of environmental agents on humans and animals. The principal aim of the journal is to assess the impact of chemicals and microbiological pollutants on human health. Both in vivo and in vitro studies, focused on defining the etiology of environmentally induced illness and to increase understanding of the mechanisms by which environmental agents cause disease, are especially welcome. Investigations on the effects of global warming/climate change on the environment and public health, as well as those focused on the effects of anthropogenic activities on climate change are also of particular interest.
Although Environmental Research is opened to all subjects directly related with this field, areas of special interest include:
• Air, soil, and water pollutants and health
• Biomonitoring and adverse human health effects
• Environmental and occupational medicine
• Environmental epidemiology
• Environmental microbiology
• Environmental toxicology
• Environmental transport and fate of pollutants
• Global warming/climate change
• Nanomaterials in the environment and nanotoxicology
• Risk analysis, risk assessment and risk management, and public health
• Waste treatment and disposal
• Water and wastewater management, and sewage
Ancient Historical Research Foundation
Explorers and researchers alike are constantly making new and exciting historical discoveries. Piece by piece the puzzle of the past comes together, providing a better understanding of the complex history of our world. Founded in 2004, The Ancient Historical Research Foundation was created to research, locate, organize and document historic and ancient history as it comes into view. Societal biases, personal agendas among the academic community and layman alike, disinformation, and misinformation have had a tremendous influence on the way humans in general view the past. Our goal is to discover the truth, where ever it may lead …
Naval History and Heritage Command
The Histories Branch researches and writes the multi-volume Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, available in many libraries in the United States and abroad. Compiled like an encyclopedia, each volume includes summary histories of U.S. Navy ships from certain sections of the alphabet. The volumes also include an assortment of appendices on small craft, dictionary entries for Confederate Navy ships and various essays related to naval ships.
Trace the history of South Carolina as a state and locate historical sites throughout the state.
A brief history about the state of South Carolina from the State Library.
Short histories of South Carolina counties.
Maps Tracing the Formation of Counties in SC
These maps describe how each of South Carolina’s 46 counties were formed.
National Register of Historic Sites in SC
Significant historical, architectural, or archaeological properties listed in the National Register of Historic Places.
Archaeology in SC
Introduction to archaeology in South Carolina and links to other archaeology sources.
Research at the SC Archives and History Center
An introduction to research at the SC Archives.
Why has work been valued and compensated in very different ways over the past five centuries? Why do people’s working conditions vary so widely from slavery to well-paid wage labor? And how can people individually or collectively influence these conditions? Hoping to answer these questions, the IISH is working closely with researchers on other continents to gather and analyze data about social and economic changes all over the world since 1500. This concerns labor relations, individual life cycles, survival strategies, and collective actions, as well as time series of wages, prices, productivity, gender relations, life expectancies, and literacy.
The work and labor relations perspective is essential to discover how inequality comes about and is perpetuated, within and between societies. Through this research, the Institute aims to contribute to current social discussions about social inequality, economic growth, the environment, globalization, migration, and democracy. Read more about the IISH research.
Research your European ancestors with these free genealogy databases, records, and resources for tracing your family tree in Europe. Browse by country or explore genealogy resources encompassing all of Europe. Go to link below.
Military records can often provide valuable information on the veteran, as well as on all members of the family. For example:
Compiled Service Records:
Compiled service records consist of an envelope containing card abstracts taken from muster rolls, returns, pay vouchers, and other records. They will provide you with your ancestor’s rank, unit, date mustered in and mustered out, basic biographical information, medical information, and military information.
Pension Applications and Pension Payment Records:
The National Archives also has pension applications and records of pension payments for veterans, their widows, and other heirs. The pension records in the National Archives Building in Washington, D.C. are based on service in the armed forces of the United States between 1775 and 1916. Pension application files usually provide the most genealogical information. These files often contain supporting documents such as: narratives of events during service, marriage certificates, birth records, death certificates, pages from family Bibles, family letters, depositions of witnesses, affidavits, discharge papers and other supporting papers.
Bounty land warrant application files relate to claims based on wartime service between 1775 and March 3, 1855. If your ancestor served in the Revolutionary War, War of 1812, early Indian Wars, or the Mexican War, a search of these records may be worthwhile. Bounty land records often contain documents similar to those in pension files, with lots of genealogical information. Many of the bounty land application files relating to Revolutionary War and War of 1812 service have been combined with the pension files.
The Origin of the Island
From 1892 to 1954, over twelve million immigrants entered the United States through the portal of Ellis Island, a small island in New York Harbor. Ellis Island is located in the upper bay just off the New Jersey coast, within the shadow of the Statue of Liberty. Through the years, this gateway to the new world was enlarged from its original 3.3 acres to 27.5 acres mostly by landfill obtained from ship ballast and possibly excess earth from the construction of the New York City subway system.
Before being designated as the site of the first Federal immigration station by President Benjamin Harrison in 1890, Ellis Island had a varied history. The local Indian tribes had called it “Kioshk” or Gull Island. Due to its rich and abundant oyster beds and plentiful and profitable shad runs, it was known as Oyster Island for many generations during the Dutch and English colonial periods.
By the time Samuel Ellis became the island’s private owner in the 1770s, the island had been called Kioshk, Oyster, Dyre, Bucking and Anderson’s Island. In this way, Ellis Island developed from a sandy island that barely rose above the high tide mark, into a hanging site for pirates, a harbor fort, ammunition and ordinance depot named Fort Gibson, and finally into an immigration station.
From Military Fort to National Gateway
From 1794 to 1890 (pre-immigration station period), Ellis Island played a mostly uneventful but still important military role in United States history. When the British occupied New York City during the duration of the Revolutionary War, its large and powerful naval fleet was able to sail unimpeded directly into New York Harbor.
Therefore, it was deemed critical by the United States Government that a series of coastal fortifications in New York Harbor be constructed just prior to the War of 1812. After much legal haggling over ownership of the island, the Federal government purchased Ellis Island from New York State in 1808.
Ellis Island was approved as a site for fortifications and on it was constructed a parapet for three tiers of circular guns, making the island part of the new harbor defense system that included Castle Clinton at the Battery, Castle Williams on Governor’s Island, Fort Wood on Bedloe’s Island and two earthworks forts at the entrance to New York Harbor at the Verrazano Narrows. The fort at Ellis Island was named Fort Gibson in honor of a brave officer killed during the War of 1812.
Immigration Policy Embraces the Masses
Prior to 1890, the individual states (rather than the Federal government) regulated immigration into the United States. Castle Garden in the Battery (originally known as Castle Clinton) served as the New York State immigration station from 1855 to 1890 and approximately eight million immigrants, mostly from Northern and Western Europe, passed through its doors.
These early immigrants came from nations such as England, Ireland, Germany and the Scandinavian countries and constituted the first large wave of immigrants that settled and populated the United States. Throughout the 1800s and intensifying in the latter half of the 19th century, ensuing political instability, restrictive religious laws and deteriorating economic conditions in Europe began to fuel the largest mass human migration in the history of the world.
It soon became apparent that Castle Garden was ill-equipped and unprepared to handle the growing numbers of immigrants arriving yearly. Unfortunately, compounding the problems of the small facility were the corruption and incompetence found to be commonplace at Castle Garden.
The Federal government intervened and constructed a new Federally-operated immigration station on Ellis Island. While the new immigration station on Ellis Island was under construction, the Barge Office at the Battery was used for the processing of immigrants.
The new structure on Ellis Island, built of “Georgia pine” opened on January 1, 1892. Annie Moore, a teenaged Irish girl, accompanied by her two brothers, entered history and a new country as she was the very first immigrant to be processed at Ellis Island. Over the next 62 years, more than 12 million were to follow through this port of entry.
Ellis Island Burns and Years of Records Lost
While there were many reasons to immigrate to America, no reason could be found for what would occur only five years after the Ellis Island Immigration Station opened. During the early morning hours of June 15, 1897, a fire on Ellis Island burned the immigration station completely to the ground.
Although no lives were lost, many years of Federal and State immigration records dating back to 1855 burned along with the pine buildings that failed to protect them.
The United States Treasury quickly ordered the immigration facility be replaced under one very important condition: all future structures built on Ellis Island had to be fireproof. On December 17, 1900, the new Main Building was opened and 2,251 immigrants were received that day.
Journeying By Ship to the Land of Liberty
While most immigrants entered the United States through New York Harbor (the most popular destination of steamship companies), others sailed into many ports such as Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, San Francisco, Savannah, Miami, and New Orleans. The great steamship companies like White Star, Red Star, Cunard and Hamburg-America played a significant role in the history of Ellis Island and immigration in general.
First and second class passengers who arrived in New York Harbor were not required to undergo the inspection process at Ellis Island. Instead, these passengers underwent a cursory inspection aboard ship, the theory being that if a person could afford to purchase a first or second class ticket, they were less likely to become a public charge in America due to medical or legal reasons.
The Federal government felt that these more affluent passengers would not end up in institutions, hospitals or become a burden to the state. However, first and second class passengers were sent to Ellis Island for further inspection if they were sick or had legal problems.
This scenario was far different for “steerage” or third class passengers. These immigrants traveled in crowded and often unsanitary conditions near the bottom of steamships with few amenities, often spending up to two weeks seasick in their bunks during rough Atlantic Ocean crossings.
Upon arrival in New York City, ships would dock at the Hudson or East River piers. First and second class passengers would disembark, pass through Customs at the piers and were free to enter the United States. The steerage and third class passengers were transported from the pier by ferry or barge to Ellis Island where everyone would undergo a medical and legal inspection.
A Record Year for New Americans
During the early 1900s, immigration officials mistakenly thought that the peak wave of immigration had already passed. Actually, immigration was on the rise, and in 1907 more people immigrated to the United States than any other year, a record that would hold for the next 80 years. Approximately 1.25 million immigrants were processed at Ellis Island in that one year.
Consequently, masons and carpenters were constantly struggling to enlarge and build new facilities to accommodate this greater than anticipated influx of new immigrants. Hospital buildings, dormitories, contagious disease wards and kitchens all were feverishly constructed between 1900 and 1915.
As the United States entered World War I, immigration to the United States decreased. Numerous suspected enemy aliens throughout the United States were brought to Ellis Island under custody. Between 1918 and 1919, detained suspected enemy aliens were transferred from Ellis Island to other locations in order for the United States Navy with the Army Medical Department to take over the island complex for the duration of the war.
During this time, regular inspection of arriving immigrants was conducted onboard ship or at the docks. At the end of World War I, a big “Red Scare” spread across America and thousands of suspected alien radicals were interned at Ellis Island. Hundreds were later deported based upon the principal of guilt by association with any organizations advocating revolution against the Federal government.
In 1920, Ellis Island reopened as an immigration receiving station and 225,206 immigrants were processed that year.
Arrival at the Island and Initial Inspection
If the immigrant’s papers were in order and they were in reasonably good health, the Ellis Island inspection process would last approximately three to five hours. The inspections took place in the Registry Room (or Great Hall), where doctors would briefly scan every immigrant for obvious physical ailments. Doctors at Ellis Island soon became very adept at conducting these “six second physicals.”
By 1916, it was said that a doctor could identify numerous medical conditions (ranging from anemia to goiters to varicose veins) just by glancing at an immigrant. The ship’s manifest log, that had been filled out back at the port of embarkation, contained the immigrant’s name and his/her answers to twenty-nine questions. This document was used by the legal inspectors at Ellis Island to cross-examine the immigrant during the legal (or primary) inspection.
The two agencies responsible for processing immigrants at Ellis Island were the United States Public Health Service and the Bureau of Immigration (later known as the Immigration and Naturalization Service – INS). On March 1, 2003, the Immigration and Naturalization Service was restructured and included into three separate bureaus as part of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. For more information on these three bureaus and their mission, visit their websites at the following:
Bureau of Citizenship & Immigration Services
Bureau of Immigrations & Customs Enforcement
Bureau of Customs & Border Protection
Despite the island’s reputation as an “Island of Tears”, the vast majority of immigrants were treated courteously and respectfully, and were free to begin their new lives in America after only a few short hours on Ellis Island. Only two percent of the arriving immigrants were excluded from entry. The two main reasons why an immigrant would be excluded were if a doctor diagnosed that the immigrant had a contagious disease that would endanger the public health or if a legal inspector thought the immigrant was likely to become a public charge or an illegal contract laborer.
Immigration Laws and Regulations Evolve
From the very beginning of the mass migration that spanned the years 1880 to 1924, an increasingly vociferous group of politicians and nativists demanded increased restrictions on immigration. Laws and regulations such as the Chinese Exclusion Act, the Alien Contract Labor Law and the institution of a literacy test barely stemmed this flood tide of new immigrants.
Actually, the death knell for Ellis Island, as a major entry point for new immigrants, began to toll in 1921. It reached a crescendo between 1921 with the passage of the Quota Laws and 1924 with the passage of the National Origins Act. These restrictions were based upon a percentage system according to the number of ethnic groups already living in the United States as per the 1890 and 1910 Census.
It was an attempt to preserve the ethnic flavor of the “old immigrants”, those earlier settlers primarily from Northern and Western Europe. The perception existed that the newly arriving immigrants mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe were somehow inferior to those who arrived earlier.
After World War I, the United States began to emerge as a potential world power. United States embassies were established in countries all over the world, and prospective immigrants now applied for their visas at American consulates in their countries of origin. The necessary paperwork was completed at the consulate and a medical inspection was also conducted there.
After 1924, the only people who were detained at Ellis Island were those who had problems with their paperwork, as well as war refugees and displaced persons. Ellis Island still remained open for many years and served a multitude of purposes. During World War II, enemy merchant seamen were detained in the baggage and dormitory building.
The United States Coast Guard also trained about 60,000 servicemen there. In November of 1954, the last detainee, a Norwegian merchant seaman named Arne Peterssen, was released, and Ellis Island officially closed.
Ellis Island Dedicated as a National Monument
In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson declared Ellis Island part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument. Ellis Island was opened to the public on a limited basis between 1976 and 1984. Starting in 1984, Ellis Island underwent a major restoration, the largest historic restoration in U.S. history.
The $160 million dollar project was funded by donations made to The Statue of Liberty – Ellis Island Foundation, Inc. in partnership with the National Park Service. The Main Building was reopened to the public on September 10, 1990, as the Ellis Island Immigration Museum. With the completion of the Peopling of America Center® on May 20, 2015, and the entire story of American immigration being told, the museum was renamed the Ellis Island National Museum of Immigration. Today, the museum receives almost 2 million visitors annually.
Discovering American Women’s History Online
About this collection
This database provides access to digital collections of primary sources (photos, letters, diaries, artifacts, etc.) that document the history of women in the United States. These diverse collections range from Ancestral Pueblo pottery to interviews with women engineers from the 1970s.
The database offers the following features:
Detailed descriptions and links to more than 700 digital collections
Quick access to basic and advanced searches on every page
Options for browsing by subject (300+ entries), place, time period, and primary source type
Options for narrowing search results by subject, time period, place, and primary source type
RSS feeds (at right) alert users to new records in the database.
Tech Trends for Libraries in 2016
Ben’s Guide to the U.S. Government
Ben’s Guide to the U.S. Government, a service of the Government Publishing Office (GPO), is designed to inform students, parents, and educators about the Federal Government, which issues the publications and information products disseminated by the GPO’s Federal Depository Library Program. It is our hope that Ben’s Guide to the U.S. Government fulfills that role.
Civil War Records – National Archive
The National Archives and Fold3.com are working as partners to bring increased access to National Archives holdings. This includes the name index to the Civil War and Later Pension Files, with over 3 million entries, the Mathew B. Brady Collection of Civil War photographs, and records of the Southern Claims Commission.
Did Your Ancestors Come Through Ellis Island? Here’s How to Find Out
The Ellis Island records website has long been a great place to find free ancestry information. Providing instant access to more than 50 million immigration records, it’s a vital resource for anyone with immigrant ancestry from the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Last year, Ellis Island revealed a brand new website, including a revamped and improved family history records section. In fact, all of the Statue of Liberty webpages — including the Ellis Island records search, the Wall of Honor and the Flag of Faces — are all included in one clean new design. The layout is much easier to navigate and there are a wealth of advanced search options that were either difficult to find or simply nonexistent before the change. Plus, access to all documents is free.
For more information go to link above.
Native American Research
United States Native American Research at the Family History Library in Salt Lake City Utah. The “five civilized tribes”: Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole and other tribes. Find Native Americans by Tribe, State, Chief or Famous Native Americans
There is some debate as to whether it should be called Native American research or American Indian research. In the official United States documents, both the terms Native American and American Indian are used in the titles of the documents. This site will use both terms to mean research that is used to find ancestors for the race of peoples whose origins were here in the United States before the races of people whose origins were not on the American Continent.
Military History Web Sites
Military Theory, Theorists, and Strategy
This links site from Air University of the US Air Force provides a good breath of information for anyone interesting in learning more about the history of military theory and strategy and the key theorists behind it. For each topic, such as Strategy Models and Criticisms; Irregular Warfare; and Coercion Theory, many links are provided to both online resources and textual resources. This site provides a great database for a large array of information on specific items in Military History.
Strategic Studies Institute United States Army War College
The Strategic Studies institute contains information on current military issues divided into Regional Issues and Strategic Issues. Regional Issues are presented as articles organized by global region. For example, the Middle East and North Africa section contains articles discussing the regional effects of the Iraq War and Hamas, while the Asia Pacific section contains articles on the escalating tension in Korea. The Strategic Issues section contains articles concerning contemporary strategic concerns such as the Global War on Terrorism and Homeland Security. This site is recommended for those looking for information regarding current military conflicts and strategies.
Library of Congress: American Memory – War, Military Collections
The Library of Congress provides a great source for primary source material for American military history. Items that can be found here include an electronic version of The Stars and Stripes, The American Soldiers’ Newspaper of World War I; extensive maps from both sides of the Civil war; and Ansel Adams photographs of Japanese-American interment camps. Like other Library of Congress resources, this is website is a great destination for those seeking primary source materials about American military periods. Clicking on the Browse button at the top of the page provides an easy way to navigate though the different resources.
About.com: Military History
This About.com site is extremely well organized and easy to navigate. From the homepage you can select an individual topic such as Naval Warfare, Strategies and Tactics, or Current Conflicts. This site has extensive information both on the main wars such as World War II and on less-known conflicts such as the 1969 Football War between El Salvador and Honduras. Overall, this site is a great starting point for researching Military History.
The Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History, and Diplomacy
While not specifically targeted to Military History, the Avalon Project website contains digitized versions of every significant document in law, history, and diplomacy since 4000 BCE. This site is a recommended destination for anyone searching for the specific wording of any military treaty or document.
Military History Online
This broad-based site offers a range of extended range of member articles on military history. It also offers a Civil War Genealogy Database and community forums. Several links to member articles were broken.
Military History 503
This site is the digitized form of the Military History magazine. As such, it contains numerous well-written and insightful articles about specific topics in any point in military history, from Ancient Greece and Rome to the Present Day. While there is a substantial number of articles, the site is hard to navigate as you cannot browse by topic, although there is a search function. This is a good site to check out if you know exactly what you need.
National Army Museum
The British National Army Museum online offerings include a collection of records and images. Online exhibitions include The Western Front, 1918 and Helmands: an online exhibition in support of the NAM’s gallery- Helmand: The Soldiers’ Story.
The Society for Military History
The Society is devoted to stimulating and advancing the study of military history and offers an extensive set of links to military history sites. The Back issues of the Journal of Military History, the quarterly journal of the Society for Military History, are available through JSTOR. Site design, and some content, outdated.
Air Force Historical Research Agency
This document repository administered by the Air Force Historical Research Agency contains over 500,000 documents relating to the history of the United States Air Force throughout the 20th century. While there is a great deal of information available here, it’s largely specific and technical in nature. Browsing functionality and organization is limited; most navigation is conducted through a search feature. Storage of many of the documents as PDF files also limits casual browsing. A ‘photos’ section is one of the more accessible and helpful parts of the site.
This site explores both major and minor wars around the globe from 1800 to 1999. Includes review essays, timelines, and chronologies of armed conflict. Major sections include WWII, Weapons of War, and Articles of War. Obtrusive ads on home page.
Military History Timeline
The War Scholar provides “A Military History Timeline of War and Conflict Across the Globe 3000 B.C. to A.D. 1999.” organized around four major periods — Ancient World, Classical World, Middle Ages, Modern — the color-coded timeline provides the ability to identify major conflicts across the globe in any given year or time period. A simple and clear reference.
This site, aimed at middle school students, attempts to illustrate military history through the use of tabletop simulations of historical battles. Ranging in time from ancient Egypt to the Vietnam war, these simulations will be applicable to many history classes. These complex simulations will require considerable amounts of class time, as well as preparation time by the instructor. However, they have the potential to create a unique and engaging experience.
A great new site that includes: a U.S. history e-textbook; over 400 annotated documents, primary sources on slavery, Mexican American and Native American history, and U.S. political, social, and legal history; short essays on the history of film, ethnicity, private life, and technology; multimedia exhibitions; reference resources that include a searchable database of 1,500 annotated links, classroom handouts, chronologies, glossaries, an audio archive including speeches and book talks by historians, and a visual archive with hundreds of historical maps and images. The site’s Ask the HyperHistorian feature allows users to pose questions to professional historians.
The Governmental Research Association was established in 1914 and is the national organization of individuals professionally engaged in governmental research. The purpose of the Association is to encourage individuals and organizations to engage in governmental research in the general interest. Governmental research involves the collection, analysis, and distribution of factual information on governmental activities to citizens and officials for the improvement of government and the reduction of its cost. In furtherance of this aim, the Association works to foster the establishment of governmental research agencies, aid and coordinate the activities of governmental research agencies, facilitate the exchange of ideas and experiences among the professional staff of such agencies, and undertake other related activities.
Institute of Historical Research
The Institute of Historical Research is one of nine member Institutes of the School of Advanced Study, part of the University of London.
Founded in 1921 by A. F. Pollard, the Institute of Historical Research (IHR) is an important resource and meeting place for researchers from all over the world.
Its mission is to:
Promote the study of history and an appreciation of the importance of the past among academics and the general public, in the UK and internationally, and to provide institutional support and individual leadership for this broad historical community;
Offer a wide range of services both onsite and remotely which promote and facilitate excellence in historical research, teaching and scholarship in the UK, by means of its library, seminars, conferences, fellowships, training, consultancy, Continuing
Professional Development and publications (both electronic and in printed form);
Provide an accessible and stimulating portal for the exchange of ideas and information and current developments in historical scholarship;
Produce internationally regarded scholarship from our academic staff and research centers.
Ed Tech Teacher
Best of History Web Sites aims to provide quick, convenient, and reliable access to the best history-oriented resources online in a wide range of categories and has been designed to benefit history teachers and their students; however, general history enthusiasts will benefit from the site as well. Ranked #1 by Google for history web sites, Best of History Web Sites receives upwards of 100,000 visitors per month.
With links to over 1200 history-related web sites that have been reviewed for quality, accuracy, and usefulness, the site also includes links to K-12 history lesson plans, teacher guides, activities, games, quizzes, and more. Sites with engaging educational content and stimulating and useful multimedia technologies are most likely to be included in these pages. However, useful general resources and research-oriented sites have been included as well.
Suggestions are welcome and appreciated. (We receive many suggestions, so please understand that it may be months until your recommendation is reviewed.) To make any suggestions, comments, questions, or to be notified of updates to the Newsletter, please fill in the form located to the left. We respect` your privacy and will not provide any information regarding you to a third party.
Artcyclopedia – If you’re looking for information on artists or art movements, Artcyclopedia is a great place to begin. The site provides links to museums worldwide where works by over 8,200 artists can be viewed. While most of the artists listed are painters and sculptors, you can also find photographers, decorative artists, and architects. Any art or art history research can benefit from this site, at least as a starting point.
Pew Research Foundation
About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts.
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the nation’s first established cultural institution and the largest library in the world, with millions of items including books, recordings, photographs, maps and manuscripts in its collections.
The Library provides Congress, the federal government and the American people with a rich, diverse and enduring source of knowledge to inform, inspire and engage them and support their intellectual and creative endeavors.
As the Acting Librarian of Congress, I welcome you to this vast online treasure trove of materials and services. Whether you wish to explore the collections online, seek legislative information, register a copyright, access programs or plan a visit, I am glad you are here and invite you to return often.
We drive openness, cultivate public participation, and strengthen our nation’s democracy through public access to high-value government records.
Our Mission is to provide public access to Federal Government records in our custody and control. Public access to government records strengthens democracy by allowing Americans to claim their rights of citizenship, hold their government accountable, and understand their history so they can participate more effectively in their government.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is the nation’s record keeper. Of all documents and materials created in the course of business conducted by the United States Federal government, only 1%-3% are so important for legal or historical reasons that they are kept by us forever.
Those valuable records are preserved and are available to you, whether you want to see if they contain clues about your family’s history, need to prove a veteran’s military service, or are researching an historical topic that interests you.
What Is The Importance of Research
Research leads to an expansion of knowledge and discoveries of new medical treatments and cures. Research efforts have also led to breakthroughs in agriculture, such as the introduction of high-yield and drought-resistant crop varieties. Projections of the effects of global warming have also been determined through research.
Research is the systematic investigation and study of materials and sources to establish facts and reach new conclusions, so it shapes people’s understanding of the world around them. Through research findings, psychologists are able to explain individuals’ behaviors, including how people think and act in certain ways. This helps to determine disorders and their impact on the person and society, thus developing appropriate treatments to improve the individual’s quality of life.
In business, market research helps companies to make projections and formulate appropriate strategies to ensure survival. Businesses conduct surveys to understand the needs of the community and consumption habits.
Research has led to the introduction of new medical treatments and cures that have helped counter several diseases, thus increasing human life expectancy. It is now possible to live 10 years longer than in the 1960s and 20 years longer than in the 1930s. Causes of early deaths and crippling vitamin deficiencies have also been identified by progress made in the medical field through research.
Research Centers and Programs
The Smithsonian Institution is home to nine research centers and numerous research programs with areas of inquiry spanning the globe and the farthest reaches of the universe.
Source: Smithsonian WEBSITE
Trace Your Family History
For Information goto: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/facesofamerica/resources/trace-your-family-history/32/
Online databases make it easier than ever to trace your own family history, and DNA testing allows for the type of deep research conducted by Henry Louis Gates, Jr. These links can help you get started.
Official genealogy portal for the US National Archives, contains guidance for genealogy research and diverse archives of American records
FamilySearch provides resources and is tied to real-world family history classes and Family History Centers around the world
ProGenealogists offers paid research services but also provide a useful set of tools and links for getting started on your own.
Genealogy publication with advice on getting started, links, and more
One of the more popular paid genealogy database sites
Downloadable genealogy charts (pdf)
Popular genealogy software associated with ancestry.com
Suggestions for making your own family tree
Volunteer-based organization for international genealogy
50,000 links sorted by region
Offers DNA testing resources to learn ancestry and personal health information.
Access to more documents from the National Archives, with a set of tools for uploading, annotating, and sharing
Three-volume journal on digital genealogy
Free and advertisement-free hosting of genealogy sites for educational purposes, public research, or study of national historic heritage
Cemetery records online
Information on DNA genealogy
Search for relatives who may have come through Ellis Island
Pro Genealogist’s guide to sites their genealogists use, with indications of which are free and which are paid